Atomic Force Micoscope is a very-high resolution type of scanning probe microscope that creates an image by tapping the sample surface with a probe. It can also measure surface roughness and mechanical properties, and allows some forms of microfabrication.
A Multimode SPM 8 equipped with a Nanoscope V control unit (Bruker AXS). The SPM is also equipped with a PicoForce Unit, a Heater Unit, and the ScanAsyst and Peak Force Tapping softwares (Bruker AXS). Furthermore, a digital oscilloscope (Tektronix TDS 2022C) and a Nikon optical microscope are coupled to the system.
Open Lab Skåne offers different mono and multi parameter blood analyzers, as well as multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer.
Single parameter blood analyzers include HemoCue® systems, i.e. Glucose 201+, Hb 201+, and HbA1c 501, to precisely measure glucose, hemoglobin, and hemoglobin A1c (glycated protein), respectively, in a whole blood.
Multi parameter blood analyzers include three different instruments from HemoCue, Abaxis, and Radiometer. Specifically:
HemoCue® WBC DIFF System is an in vitro diagnostic system designed for quantitative determination of white blood cells. The system provides values for a total white blood cell (WBC) count and a 5 part differential WBC count, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils.
Piccolo Xpress blood chemistry analyzer from Abaxis is small in size yet big on accuracy, reliability and reproducibility device, which delivers real-time blood chemistry diagnostic information. Many different parameters, such as bioanalytes (glucose, lactate, creatinine, etc), electrolytes (anions and cathions), and enzymes, can be precisely measured in 5-10 minutes using a whole blood sample as small as 100 μL.
ABL90 FLEX from Radiometer can deliver 17 parameters, such as pH, pCO2, pO2, ctHb, electrolytes, glucose, lactate, and bilirubin, from a whole blood sample as small as 65 μL in just 35 seconds. Automatic quality control with dedicated QC solutions comes built-in to the analyzer, which also runs continuous system analysis checks, and takes automated corrective actions when necessary.
Multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer, Bioimpedancometer Tanita MC-780 P MA, is used for a full medical-grade segmental body composition analysis in less than 20 seconds without specialist assistance. A large LED dual display shows the body composition measurement data and segmental analysis in an easy-to-read format.
Dynamic Light Scattering analyzes the interference pattern produced when laser light is scattered by passing through a sample solution. The fluctuations of the interference pattern correlates with the size of the particles, which allows the size distribution to be determined. In Z-potential mode the sample solution is also exposed to an electrical field, and the change in fluctuations when the field is ON/OFF is used to determine the surface charge of the particles, the so called zeta potential.
Malvern Zetasizer Ultra can measure Dynamic Light Scattering at forward, side , or back-scatter angles, or do a combined multi-angle measurement (MADLS). The particle size range is 1 nm – 10 um, though sample sedimentation can further limit the possibility to measure large/heavy particles. In addition to size distribution, MADLS can also be used to determine sample concentration. Zeta potential is determined using Phase Analysis Light Scattering (M3-PALS).
Drop Volume Apparatus
The Drop Volume Apparatus is suitable for the determination of the surface tension of liquids.
Drop Volume Tensiometer TVT 2 consists of step motor driven syringe including a needle for droplet formation, setup for optical droplet falling registration, and software to operate hardware and calculate surface tension of liquid.
In differential Scanning Calorimetry, the heat required to increase the temperature of a sample, relative to a reference, is measured as a function of temperature. This allows the determination of the sample heat capacity and the detection of phase transitions in the sample.
Differential scanning calorimeter DSC1 from MettlerToledo equipped with an intracooler TC100 and HSS8 sensor. Temperature range: -90 to +550 °C. The calorimeter can be used to study solid, soft and liquid substances. Typical sample masses are 2-10 mg. The DSC can be run in modulation regime to resolve reversing and non-reversing heat effects.
DVS Dynamic vapor sorption instrument
The TA Instruments Q5000 SA is used to determine the amount of moisture a material can adsorb or desorb as a function of its mass, temperature, time and relative humidity. This instrument is primarily concerned with applications where changing levels of humidity can influence or significantly alter important properties or uses of a material (e.g. physical properties (Tg, glass transition) stability, shelf life, bioavailability).
A scanning electron microscope uses an electron beam that sweeps over the sample to create an image of the sample surface. It allows imaging of samples over a wide range of magnifications (roughly 50x-100000x for this SEM) and with a large focal depth. Using different detectors, differences in sample composition (different atomic weight) may be highlighted and even elemental composition of specific sample features determined.
The Zeiss EVO LS10 is an environmental scanning electron microscope, equipped with a LaB6 filament. The EVO LS10 offers two additional imaging modes, apart from the standard high vacuum mode for fully conducting samples. In variable pressure mode a low pressure of nitrogen gas (usually10-40 mbar) is allowed in the chamber. The gas is ionized by the electron beam and the ions help dissipate the surface charge built up in poorly conducting samples, allowing imaging without surface coating. In extended pressure mode, water vapour is introduced into the chamber, which together with a Peltier Coolstage allows imaging of hydrated samples at controlled temperature and relative humidity. The SEM is equipped with detectors for secondary electrons, backscatter electrons, VPSE (for VP mode) and also an INCA EDX microanalysis system for elemental analysis.
An Agar automatic sputter coater is also available for gold coating of samples.
6 potentiostats/galvanostats from Amel, Autolab, BAS, and Ivium
Unique spectroelectrochemical system (home-made 10 mL spectroelectrochemical cell, spectrometer HR 4000 CG-UV-NIR and light source DH-2000from Ocean Optics)
Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography is a separation technique used to analyze or purify mixtures of proteins. As in other chromatography techniques, separation is possible because components of a mixture have different affinities for a mobile and stationary phase.
ÄKTA Pure system from GE Healthcare. Single wavelength UV detector. 96 well-plate fraction collector.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy is a technique for the determination of a sample’s infrared absorption spectrum, as an aid in sample identification.
Gas chromatography (GC) – mass spectrometry (MS) combines GC and MS to identify different substances and is capable of detecting trace elements thus allowing for the analysis of very small amounts of sample. In GC the compounds are separated between a liquid stationary phase and a gas mobile phase and is suitable for the analysis of compounds that can be vaporized without decomposing. Separation of components from a mixture is primarily based on differences in boiling point (or vapor pressure). Separation is achieved based on the molecules’ difference in retention time where a downstream mass spectrometer then captures, ionizes, accelerates, deflects and detects the ionized molecules separately based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
Agilent 6890N gas chromatograph coupled with Agilent 5973 Network Mass Selective Detector. For specifics visit: https://www.agilent.com/cs/library/specifications/Public/5989-3290EN.pdf and http://www.agilent.com/en-us/support/mass-spectrometry/a03808.
The drop shape analyser can determine the contact angle between a sample droplet and a flat substrate.
Kruss Goniometer DSA100 Drop shape analyzer system for measurements of static and dynamic contact angles. The goniometer is equipped with single dosing system DS3200/3201. Temperature is controlled in the range 5-90 °C using TC30 measuring chamber. Humidity is controlled using HC10 humidity chamber.
Impedance measuring equipment
Franz cells (Ø=0.90 cm, V=6 ml, PermeGear, Hellertown, PA, USA) equipped with four electrodes and connected to a potentiostat from Ivium Technologies (Eindhoven, The Netherlands) are used to study impedance characteristics of membranes, including skin, leafs, etc. Two platinum wires serve as working and counter electrodes and two Ag/AgCl/3M KCl electrodes from World Precision Instruments (Sarasota, FL, USA) are used as sensing and reference electrodes. The equipment allows impedance measurements at frequencies up to 6 MHz.
In vitro diffusion equipment
Diffusion cells can be used to measure the transport of a substance, such as a drug, across a membrane, such as skin, over time. The membrane can be either biological (skin, mucosa etc) or a synthetic reference (silicone etc).
Three alternative thermostated in vitro diffusion equipments are available in house, two set ups with flow through cells (15 + 7 cells) [R.L. Bronaugh & R.F. Stewart, J. Pharm. Sci. 74 (1985) 64–67] and 10 static Franz cells [Franz T, J. Invest. Dermatol. 64 (1975) 190-195]. Solute diffusion over skin, oral mucosa , nasal mucosa, nails, plant cuticle, as well as synthetic membranes, has been studied and assayed spectrophotometrically (on-line) or by HPLC-UV. Electrical impedance spectroscopy has been appended to the Franz cells as a tool helping to explain diffusion properties of solutes through these membranes.
Langmuir Surface Balance
KSV 5000 is a programmable Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett instrument for automated Langmuir film experiments and for deposition of normal or alternating multilayers onto solid substrates. Surface pressure is measured using the Wilhelmy plate method.
Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer
Laser Diffraction analysis based on Fraunhofer theory determines particle size by measuring the scattered light at different angles. As the sample is stirred during the measurement, sedimentation is not an issue.
Beckman Coulter LS230 Particle Size Analyzer with Small Volume Module can measure size distributions of water-based samples in the range 0.04 um – 2000 um.
High-performance liquid chromatography is used to separate, identify and quantify the different components in a liquid mixture. Separation is achieved by the components having different affinity for the mobile (liquid) phase being pumped through the system, and the stationary phase present in the separation column. A detector, usually for UV absorption, at the end of the system detects the intensity at either a certain wavelength or over a range of different wavelengths (diode array). This can then, assuming complete separation has been achieved, be used to quantify the different components using standard samples of known concentration.
Two Waters LC-UV/DAD 2795/2996 (LCDAD) systems. This robust HPLC apparatus allows flow-rates from 50ul/min to 5ml/min for use with 2.1 mm ID columns and larger. The autosampler accepts standard 96/384 well plates with programmable temperature control from 4 to 40°C. A heated column compartment provides temperatures from 5 degrees above ambient to 65°C. A range of LC detectors, like a dual wavelength- or PDA UV detector is optionally available.
The liquid chromatography mass spectrometry system is a normal HPLC system which also has a mass spectrometer connected at the detector end. This allows for the subsequent separation and identification of components of complex samples. Mass spectrometry works by ionizing the sample compound and measuring the mass-to-charge ratio of the charged compound and its fragments, allowing for the elucidation of the original sample structure.
Leica DMRB, up-right microscope
Leica DMRB, up-right microscope.
Equipped for transmission light (bright-field) and 3 channel epi-fluorescence (“blue”, “green” and “red”) wide-field microscopy. Lenses for low to high magnifications (x2.5, x10, x20, x40, x100 oil immersion), and detector/camera for digital imaging.
Bring your samples to test how the microscope works for your analyses, and if adaptations need be made on the system. We provide the initial hands-on training, and are available for further support.
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See also our website about further services: www.imagene-it.se
MALDI is known as the abbreviation for “Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization” and this is soft ionization technique, which allows measuring molecular masses of individual compounds by converting them into charged ions from a large quantity of complex mixture. MALDI system combines with TOF MS, which is Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. The mass analyzer helps to separate charged ions according to their mass to charge ratio (m/z). The time for ions travelling through a field in the tube can disperse the ions regarding to their m/z in a field-free drift path; therefore, the lighter one arrives to detector before the heavier one. MALDI-TOF MS/MS instrument is especially important in the studies and analysis of biomolecules such as peptides, proteins, saccharides, lipids, glycans, and nucleic acids.
The aim of usage matrix is to facilitate ionization process. There are commonly used crystallized small organic molecules MALDI matrix substances, which are 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 4-Hydroxy-α-cyanocinnamic acid (HCCA), 2,5-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP), Sinapinic acid (SA), 3-Hydroxypicolinic acid (HPA), 2,4,6-Trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) and the reason of usage different matrices is depending on the sample for quantification.
Material characterization lab
Following instruments are available in the characterization lab:
- Micro hardness tester: A Future Tech FM-100e measuring Vickers hardness with loads from 1 g to 1000 g and a microscope with two objective lenses (10x and 50x).
- Olympus BHM upright optical microscope for bright field reflective microscopy. Low and high magnification by homogeneous immerged objective lenses (5x, 10x, 20x, 50x, 100x).
- Leica DM 2700M upright optical microscope for reflective microscopy in bright and dark field mode. Pictures with low to high magnification (5x, 10x, 20x, 50x, 100x oil immersed objective lenses) can be captured by a Leica DMC2900 digital HD camera and further processes by the corresponding software.
- The microscope is placed on a 1600mm x 1000mm diabase measuring table (C.E. Johansson) with a flatness tolerance of 4 µm.
- An atomic force microscope (nanosurf easysurf 2) with its vibration dampening table can be used on the diabase table. With atomic force microscopy an image of the sample’s surface can be gained by scanning over it. Measurements in contact (static) and non-contact (Dynamic) operation mode can be performed.
Mechanical testing lab
Following instruments are available in the mechanical testing lab
- For tensile strength testing there is a MTS Criterion Model 43.504 with a 30 kN force capacity and an axial extensometer for tensile testing attached to a computer with corresponding testing software.
- Profile projector Mitoyo PJ 2500 with a 300 mm screen diameter for detail magnification of delicate/fragile parts
- Basic regular Rockwell hardness tester: Wilson Wolpert Rockwell 500 RA with analogue reading of HRB, C, A, F and accuracy conform with EN-ISO 6508 or ASTM E-18.
- Two types of furnaces: Carbolite ELF 11/6 B with ramp heating and a maximum temperature of 1100 °C. The dimensions are (HxWxD) 165 mm x 180 mm x 210 mm and a Thermolyte 47900 furnace with a maximum temperature of 1000 °C programable for ramp heating and different dwelling times.
- A Terco MT3012 fatigue testing machine with a speed of 3000 rpm
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy can give information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state and chemical environment of molecules. Mostly used for the identification of small (organic) compounds.
An automated Rudolph thin film ellipsometer (type 43603-200E, Rudolph Research, USA) equipped with a xenon arc lamp as a light source; an interference filter with UV and infrared blocking (Melles Griot, The Netherlands) for working at a wavelength of 4429 Å. The experimental setup is based on null ellipsometry in the PCSA arrangement. The components of the ellipsometer are controlled by means of the Ellipso software that automatically measures the ellipsometric angles Psi and Delta allowing the calculation of the thickness, refractive index, and adsorbed mass of the growing films. To perform experiments in liquid media a peristaltic pump (Ole Dich Instruments) is used. The temperature is controlled by means of a Julabo 5B water bath. Data analysis is performed with the Ellipsometry software by Plamen Petrov.
Optical (or light) microscopy is a standard technique for studying microstructure. This microscope can produce micrographs in the magnification range 50-500x, and can use either transmitted light (see through the sample) or reflected light (see the sample surface).
Nikon Optiphot Epi-Fluorescence microscope equipped with polarizing filters, phase contrast and a DS-U1 digital camera. A TransferMan NK2 micromanipulator allows manipulation of samples, such as mounting of AFM colloidal probes, and a Linkam Analysa-LTS350 temperature controlled stage allows study of temperature-induced effects, e.g. lipid phase transitions.
Particle micro-electrophoresis apparatus Mark II (Rank Brothers, Cambridge, UK) consists of flat electrophoretic cell equipped with two platinum electrodes and optical microscope. The apparatus can be used to determine particle electrophoretic mobility in solution. The mobility can be used to assess particle zeta potential and surface charge density. Apparatus allows measurements with particles bigger than 0.3 µm in diameter.
Fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to determine the fluorescence intensity of a sample when exposed to light of a certain wavelength (usually UV light). A plate reader can make such measurements on samples in microplates, allowing for fast and automated determination of a large number of samples.
Gemini EM Microplate Reader is a fluorescence plate reader for both liquid- or cell-based assays (top or bottom measurements), for 6- to 384-well microplates. Excitation and emission wavelengths in the range 250-850 nm. Temperature regulation from ambient to 45ºC.
The Q-Sense E4 quartz crystal microbalance is equipped with the E4 measuring chamber that allows simultaneously running a maximum of four experiments in the four temperature controlled cells. Changes in frequency and dissipation are registered by means of the E-series electronic unit which is also responsible for the temperature control. These changes are related to the adsorbed wet mass and the viscoelastic properties of the films adsorbed onto the sensor. The QCM-D is also equipped with an electrochemistry and an ellipsometry module enabling the simultaneous measurement of the electrochemical and optical properties respectively of the adsorbed films. A four channels IPC peristaltic pump (Ismatec). Data analysis is performed with the Q-Tools software (Q-Sense).
The Rheometer is used for determination of viscosimetric and rheological properties of liquids/suspensions/slurrys.
Rheometer Bohlin CVO 100 Digital equipped with Peltier Cylinder C25. The rheometer system is suitable for research, product development and quality control. The rheometer is equipped with 20 mm parallel plate, cone 4/40 and coaxial cylinders measuring systems.
Sample preparation lab
A sample preparation lab including the following machines:
- Cutting Machine: Bueler, Isomet 4000 with available cutting blades for non-ferrous and ferrous materials (HV 250 – 800) as well as diamond blades for cutting ceramics and hard materials (HV >800)
- Mounting Press: ATM, Opal 400, with Struer, Levofast resin for sample mounting
- Grinding and Polishing machine: ATM, Saphire 320 with rotating disk and Rubin 500 sample holder. Available grinding paper with 220, 320, 1200, 4000 grit. Silk, neoprene and nap polishing blades and diamond solutions (9µm, 6µm, 1µm, ¼ µm) as well as silica gel can be provided.
- A Dosing Device, ATM Topas 101, can be used for automated dosing of polishing solutions.
- The lab has one fume that can be used for etching of the samples. Reflective microscopes for analyzing samples are in the material characterization lab and can be used.
A double-twin sorption calorimeter for studies of hydration of powders and soft materials. The channel diameter is 28 mm. The calorimeter is equipped with two sorption cells, each consist of a sorption chamber (on top) and a vaporization chamber (bottom). The cambers are connected by tubes with varying diameters to control the ioele flow. The double twin calorimeter is inserted into an isothermal TAM 2277 calorimeter from Thermometric equipped with a nanoamplifier.
Spectroscopic ellipsometer UVISEL HORIBA
Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a simple and fast optical and indirect technique that offers the possibility to determine the average thickness of the adsorbed layer. Ellipsometry measures the ratio of two values, which is the amplitude ratio (Ψ=rp/rs) and the phase difference between light waves (Δ=Δp-Δs). These two parameters are defined from the difference in the reflection coefficients for p- and s- polarizations and thus in the optical properties of a material (extinction coefficient and refractive index). We have in house an UVISEL HORIBA spectroscopic ellipsometer covering a wavelength range of 200 – 820 nm.
Small and wide angle X-ray diffraction shines a monochromatic X-ray beam through a sample and measures the diffracted radiation at small and wide angles. Small angle X-ray diffraction can be used to determine the size of repeating variations in electron density in a sample, in the range of 10-200 Å. This corresponds to the repeating distance between layers in crystals and liquid crystals, allowing the determination of the unit cell size. Wide angle X-ray diffraction shows the diffraction by structures in the range 3-5 Å, allowing the distinction between a crystalline and amorphous/liquid crystalline sample.
Small and Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering. Kratky compact camera with line collimation (slit focus), equipped with two linear Mbraun detectors (small and wide angle). Two different temperature controlled sample stages (0-70 °C or 25-300 °C) can be used. Powder (semi-solid/solid) or capillary (liquid) sample holders, as well as a flow-through capillary sample holder, are available.
Thermogravimetric analysis is a method of thermal analysis used to measure the properties of materials as a function of increasing temperature (with constant heating rate) or as a function of time (with constant temperature and/or constant mass loss). Can be used for characterization through decomposition patterns, reaction kinetics, organic or inorganic sample contents.
Q500 Thermogravimetric Analyzer from TA Instruments has a maximum sample weight of 1 g, a precision of ±0.01%, sensitivity of 0.1µg and a temperature range of ambient to 1000ºC.
TLDA Drop Technology Spectrophotometer
Transmitted Light Drop Analyser – UV-spectrophotometer suitable for measuring absorbance/transmittance for very small sample volumes. Functions as a traditional spectrophotometer but the cuvette is replaced with a microvolume drop sample (1-4µl). due to the small sample size it has the capability to measure highly concentrated or highly absorbing samples without dilution. The system is designed for a wide range of applications, from nucleic acids and protein quantification to any general UV-Visible measurements.
Water activity measurements
An instrument for measuring the water activity of a sample.
The Novasina LabMaster-aw has an accuracy of 0.003 aw (0.3%RH), and a range of 3 to 100% RH.
ZQ2000 MS system with 2795 LC and 2996 PDA
The Waters ZQ 2000 LCMS System is based on the Micromass-ZQ 2000 Mass Selective Detector. This is a robust single quadrupole mass spectrometer, offering characteristic performance for laboratories that require nominal mass resolution for mass confirmation applications. This system has a mass range (amu) up to 2000 daltons. Easily qualify and quantify small molecules in a flash with the highly sensitive system. Both inlet probes are quickly and easily interchangeable without breaking vacuum. Flow rates allowed are 5-1000 µl/min (ESI) and 200-2000 µl/min (APCI).